Tuesday, April 23, 2013

ICG နဲ႔ ျငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး စြမ္းေဆာင္မႈဆု

ျမန္မာသမၼတ ဦးသိန္းစိန္နဲ႔ ဘရာဇီးသမၼတေဟာင္း Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (လူလာ ဒါဆဲလ္ဗား) တို႔ကို အျပည္ျပည္ဆိုင္ရာ ပဋိပကၡခ်ဳပ္ၿငိမ္းေရးအဖြဲ႔ ICG က ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး စြမ္္းေဆာင္ဆုေပးပြဲသတင္း ၂၂-၄-၂ဝ၁၃ ေန႔မွာ ထြက္လာပါတယ္။ နယူးေယာ့က (ပဲရီ) ေဟာ္တယ္မွာ လုပ္ပါတယ္။ သူေဌးၾကီး George Soros ေဂ်ာ့ဆိုေရာ့စ္ နဲ႔ Her Majesty Queen of Jordan ေဂ်ာ္ဒန္ မိဘုရားတို႔လည္း ဂုဏ္သေရရွိ လူၾကီးေတြအျဖစ္ သဘာပတိေနရာမွာ တက္ၾကပါတယ္။

International Crisis Group (ICG) ႏိုင္ငံတကာ ပဋိပကၡေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေရးအဖြဲ႔ဆိုတာ အျမတ္အစြန္းမယူထဲ့၊ လြတ္လပ္တဲ့၊ အစိုးရမဟုတ္တဲ့၊ တကမာၻလံုးက ေသေက်ပ်က္စီးမႈေတြရွိတဲ့ ပဋိပကၡေတြကို အေျဖရွာေရးမွာ ကူညီေနတဲ့အဖြဲ႔အစည္းၾကီး ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ၁၉၉၅ မွာ စဖြဲ႔ခဲ့တယ္။ ဘယ္လ္ဂ်ီယမ္ႏိုင္ငံ ဘရပ္ဆဲလ္မွာ အေျခစိုက္ထားျပီး ဥကၠဌက ကေနဒါ အမ်ိဳးသမီးပညာရွင္ (လူဝစ္ အာဘာ) ျဖစ္တယ္။ ျမန္မာေတြနဲ႔ နာမည္ ရင္းႏွီးသူ တဦးကေတာ့ ၾသစေၾတးလ် ႏိုင္ငံျခားေရးဝန္ၾကီးေဟာင္း (ဂဲရက္ အီဗင္) ျဖစ္တယ္။

ႏိုင္ငံေပါင္း (၈၇) ႏိုင္ငံအတြက္ ပညာရွင္စာတမ္းေတြ ထုတ္ျပန္ျပီးျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအတြက္ ၂ဝဝဝ ခုႏွစ္ ဒီဇဘၤာလမွာ ပဌမဆံုး စာတမ္းတခုကို စျပီး ထုတ္ျပန္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။ Burma/Myanmar: How Strong Is the Military Regime? "ျမန္မာ့စစ္တပ္ ဘယ္ေလာက္အားၾကီးသလဲ" လို႔ ေခါင္းစဥ္တပ္ထားတာပါ။ အခုထိ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံနဲ႔ဆိုင္တဲ့ စာတမ္းေပါင္း (၂၃) ခုထုတ္ျပီးပါျပီ။ စာတမ္းေတြဟာ ႏိုင္ငံေရး သာမကပါ၊ HIV/AIDS ျပႆနာ ၂ ပုဒ္၊ နာဂစ္ဆိုက္ကလံုး၊ လူသားျခင္း စာနာေထာက္ထားတဲ့ အကူအညီ ၂ ပုဒ္၊ ဒဏ္ခတ္အေရးယူျခင္း (ဆန္ရွင္)၊ စစ္တပ္၊ လူနည္းစုအေရး၊ သံဃာ့အေရးအခင္း၊ ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲ ၃ ပုဒ္၊ တရုပ္ ၂ ပုဒ္၊ ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲေရး ၂ ပုဒ္၊ ျငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး နဲ႔ စီးပြါးေရးဆိုင္ရာ စာတမ္းေတြပါဝင္တယ္။

စာတမ္းေရးသူေတြက ပညာရွင္ေတြ ႏိုင္ငံျခားသားေတြ ျဖစ္တယ္။ ဒါေတြေၾကာင့္ ျမန္မာလူမ်ိဳးေတြနဲ႔ တခ်ိဳ႕ေနရာေတြမွာ ထပ္တူမက်ပါ။ ႏိုင္ငံေရးရႈေဒါင့္ကၾကည့္တာနဲ႔ ကြဲလြဲတာေတြရွိတယ္။ (ကြ်န္ေတာ္ တခုႏွစ္ခုေထာက္ျပခဲ့ဘူးပါေသးတယ္။) ပဋိပကၡ ေျဖရွင္းေရးကို တျခားႏိုင္ငံေတြက နမူနာေတြကိုသာ ကိုးကားလို႔ ျမန္မာ့ပဋိပကၡနဲ႔ ကြဲလြဲတာေတြက မ်ားတယ္။ ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ အခုျဖစ္ေပၚေျပာင္းလဲမႈမ်ိဳးဟာ ကမာၻမွာ ဘယ္မွာမွ မျဖစ္ဘူးခဲ့ပါ။ ႏိုင္ငံတကာစံေတြကို ကိုးကားတာမို႔ ျမန္မာ့ဓေလ့စရိုက္၊ ယဥ္ေက်းမႈ၊ ဘာသာေရးေတြနဲ႔ ကိုက္ညီမႈ မရွိတာေတြပါတယ္။ ျမန္မာစစ္အာဏာရွင္ေတြကို တြက္တဲ့အခါ ေလ်ာ့ေလ်ာ့ေပါ့ပါ့ ေကာက္ခ်က္ေတြလည္း သတိထားႏိုင္ပါတယ္။ ဘာပဲျဖစ္ျဖစ္ အာဏာရွင္ဘက္မလိုက္ဘဲ၊ ဒီမိုကေရးအတြက္ ေရွ႕ေနလိုက္ေပးတာအမွန္ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

1. Burma/Myanmar: How Strong Is the Military Regime?, Asia Report N°11 , 21 Dec 2000 This report, the first in a proposed series, is a preliminary assessment of the strengths and vulnerabilities of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), the military regime ruling Burma/Myanmar.

2. Myanmar: The Role of Civil Society, Asia Report N°27, 6 Dec 2001 Around the world, much hope has been placed in the prospect that civil society – the loose groupings of non-government actors in political processes – would act as a major force to change or remove undemocratic governments. This has particularly been the case in Myanmar where there has been an expectation that students or monks might force the military government from power. This has not been realised; indeed civil society is at its weakest state in decades.

3. Myanmar: The Military Regime's View of the World, Asia Report N°28, 7 Dec 2001 Since coming to power in 1988, the most recent military rulers of Burma/Myanmar have effectively resisted external demands to turn over power to a democratic government.

4. Myanmar: The HIV/AIDS Crisis, Asia Briefing N°15, 2 Apr 2002 HIV prevalence is rising rapidly in Burma/Myanmar, fuelled by population mobility, poverty and frustration that breeds risky sexual activity and drug-taking.

5. Myanmar: The Politics of Humanitarian Aid, Asia Report N°32, 2 Apr 2002 Since the 1988 uprising and 1990 election in Burma/Myanmar, foreign governments and international organisations have promoted democratisation as the solution to the country’s manifold problems, including ethnic conflict, endemic social instability, and general underdevelopment. Over time, however, as the political stalemate has continued and data on the socio-economic conditions in the country have improved, there has been a growing recognition that the political crisis is paralleled by a humanitarian crisis that requires more immediate and direct international attention.

6. Myanmar: The Future of the Armed Forces, Asia Briefing N°21, 27 Sep 2002 The release of Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest on 6 May 2002 has generated some optimism about political progress in Myanmar. It remains to be seen, however, whether all political actors will be able to translate the new cooperative atmosphere into actual compromises in key policy areas.

7. Myanmar Backgrounder: Ethnic Minority Politics, Asia Report N°52, 7 May 2003 Myanmar is one of the ethnically most diverse countries in the world and throughout its existence as an independent state has experienced a complex set of conflicts between the central government and ethnic minority groups seeking autonomy.

8. Myanmar: Sanctions, Engagement or Another Way Forward?, Asia Report N°78, 26 Apr 2004 Myanmar's National Convention, dormant since the mid 1990s, is due to reconvene on 17 May 2004.

9. Myanmar: Aid to the Border Areas, Asia Report N°82, 9 Sep 2004 The desolate political stalemate which has prevailed since the military suppression of the pro-democracy movement in 1988 continues unabated.

10. Myanmar: Update on HIV/AIDS Policy, Asia Briefing N°34, 16 Dec 2004 Myanmar's military government has acknowledged its serious HIV/AIDS problem in the two years since Crisis Group published a briefing paper.

11. Myanmar: New Threats to Humanitarian Aid, Asia Briefing N°58, 8 Dec 2006 The delivery of humanitarian assistance in Burma/Myanmar is facing new threats. After a period in which humanitarian space expanded, aid agencies have come under renewed pressure, most seriously from the military government but also from pro-democracy activists overseas who seek to curtail or control assistance programs.

12. Burma/Myanmar: After the Crackdown, Asia Report N°144, 31 Jan 2008 The violent crushing of protests led by Buddhist monks in Burma/Myanmar in late 2007 has caused even allies of the military government to recognise that change is desperately needed.

13. Burma/Myanmar after Nargis: Time to Normalise Aid Relations, Asia Report N°161, 20 Oct 2008 The massive devastation caused by cyclone Nargis has prompted a period of unprecedented cooperation between the government and international humanitarian agencies to deliver emergency aid to the survivors.

14. Myanmar: Towards the Elections, Asia Report N°174, 20 Aug 2009 The bizarre prosecution and conviction of opposition leader and Nobel Peace laureate Aung San Suu Kyi for violating her house arrest has returned attention to repression in Myanmar, as preparations were underway for the first national elections in twenty years, now scheduled for 2010.

15. China’s Myanmar Dilemma, Asia Report N°177, 14 Sep 2009 Each time global attention is focused on events in Myanmar, concerned stakeholders turn to China to influence the military government to undertake reforms.

16. The Myanmar Elections, Asia Briefing N°105, 27 May 2010 Twenty years ago today, Aung San Suu Kyi’s party swept Myanmar’s elections, but the army refused to allow the results to be implemented. Later this year Myanmar will vote again in a process certain to be seriously flawed but whose results and the constitution to be brought into force will redefine the political landscape, influencing opportunities to push for long-overdue social, economic and political reforms.

17. China’s Myanmar Strategy: Elections, Ethnic Politics and Economics, Asia Briefing N°112, 21 Sep 2010 As Myanmar approaches its first elections in two decades, China’s primary concerns are the security and stability of its south-western border and protecting its strategic and economic interests in the country.

18. Myanmar’s Post-Election Landscape, Asia Briefing N°118, 7 Mar 2011 As Myanmar enters a new political phase, the international community should seize the opportunity to encourage greater openness and reform.

19. Myanmar: Major Reform Underway, Asia Briefing N°127, 22 Sep 2011 Six months after the transition to a new, semi-civilian government, major changes are taking place in Myanmar, but many steps still need to be taken to overcome decades of conflict.

20. Myanmar: A New Peace Initiative, Asia Report N°214, 30 Nov 2011 After demonstrating commitment to an extraordinary series of social, economic and political reforms, Myanmar’s new government has launched a bold peace initiative with potential to resolve the devastating 60-year civil war with ethnic groups.

21. Reform in Myanmar: One Year On, Asia Briefing N°136, 11 Apr 2012 With Myanmar embarked on a remarkable top-down transition from five decades of authoritarian rule and extensive reforms already in place, it is time for the international community to help it address the remaining complex and numerous challenges by ending sanctions and looking to cooperation rather than coercion to promote further change.

22. Myanmar: The Politics of Economic Reform, Asia Report N°231, 27 Jul 2012 Political transition and economic reconstruction are deeply entwined in Myanmar, and the government, the country’s elites and the international community must embrace both for the dramatic reforms underway to succeed.

23. Myanmar: Storm Clouds on the Horizon, Asia Report N°238, 12 Nov 2012 Even as Myanmar’s democratic transition continues apace, ethnic violence in Rakhine State represents a threat to national stability. It demands decisive moral leadership from all the country’s leaders as they strive to find long-term solutions to the many challenges that lie ahead, including longstanding discrimination of the Rohingya and other Muslim minorities.

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